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BOS 3001 Fundamentals of Occupational Safety and Health

  Unit 1 Assessment Discussion Questions

Question 7:

Disciplines required for the Modern Safety and Health Managers

For one to qualify for the safety and health manager position within an organization, they must have the following basic level of competency. The person must be able to perform the monitoring role effectively. This includes the ability to: Monitor employee safety performance; the ability to investigate injuries for prevention and; have the ability to analyze safety efforts (Blair, 2004). Secondly, the person must be able to work productively by maintaining and sharing the vision for safety and goal setting and delegate work effectively (Blair, 2004). The third level of competency expected of safety and health managers is the ability to innovate: Maintain flexibility and open-mindedness and; the ability to think creatively and shape ideas into solutions (Blair, 2004).

Common Predictable problems faced by Safety and Health Manager

Safety and health managers often face many risks in their day-to-day execution of duties. Firstly, ensuring that the hectic daily schedules and are followed and managing all of the staff are always a challenge (Goetsch, 2015). Preparation of safety policy for the organization and ensuring that all staff follows the same remains a challenge that safety managers have to deal with every day. Another problem that safety and health managers face in their practice are the need to keep their staff safe, ensure the quality of service remains high, meet deadlines, reduce costs and remain profitable (Goetsch, 2015).

References

Blair, E. H. (2004). Critical competencies for SH&E managers-implications for educators. In ASSE Professional Development Conference and Exposition. American Society of Safety Engineers.

Goetsch, D.L. (2015).The basics of occupational safety (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Question 8:

Preview of the Answer

The concept of Total Safety Management

Total safety management (TSM) is a strategic and performance-focused approach that amalgamates all aspects of construction safety (behavior, culture, and process). TSM primary focus is to ensure a safe work environment that is consistent with peak performance and continuous improvement (Goetsch, 2015).

Total safety management has quite a number of positive outcomes. Firstly, TSM contributes to a significant decrease in the accident and incident rates in the organization. TSM also ensures a reduction in the absenteeism of employees (Goetsch, 2015). In addition, TSM is also important in the sense that it ensures improved productivity through boosting employees’ morale (Goetsch, 2015). It ensures increased productivity and improved safety practices.  In the long-run TSM ensures a better organizational performance by giving it a sustainable competitive advantage in the global marketplace.

In order for safety and health managers to keep up with the current trends in fostering the strategic elements of TSM, they should…….

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Unit II Assessment Discussion Questions

Discussion Question 1

Answer Preview

A human factor theory of accident causation links accidents to a chain of events which result in human error. The factors are categorized into three broad categories that lead to human error; overload, inappropriate response, and inappropriate activities (Goetsch, 2015).

Overload

Overload is a human factor error that causes disproportion between an individual’s capacity at any given time and the load carried in a given state. The individual’s capacity is caused by a factor such as natural ability, training, the state of mind, stress, fatigue, and the overall physical state (Goetsch, 2015). The load carried comprise of tasks for which a person is responsible and added more burdens that result from factors such as emotional stress and situational factors. There state in which an individual is acting is the product of motivational and arousal levels (Goetsch, 2015).

Inappropriate Response and Incompatibility

An individual’s response in any…….

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Discussion Question 2

Answer Preview

Some of the common problems that are associated with workers compensation are associated with many transactions that are undertaken unknown to the employer. Other compensation problems are associated with the claim process that is untimely and has an impact on worker’s compensation programs.  The compensation claims affect employees differently, for instance, valid claims, which are processes but in a real sense, they are not valid (Goetsch, 2015). Others are improper claim reporting and late reporting. Some employers delay reporting to their insurance firms, a practice which may never be followed at times.

The insurance industry does use the Experience Modification Rate (EMR) to measure the past cost of accidents or injuries and accidents and future likelihood of a risk……

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Discussion Question 3

Answer Preview

In workstations, it is important to understand the nature of the costs that are incurred. Notably, accidents are more expensive that employees do not realize.  Besides, there are hidden additional costs that even employers do not realize. When an overall cost of an accident is calculated, there are various elements that contribute to the costs. For instance, the employee’s compensations claim that cover the medical costs (Goetsch, 2015). Such as, indemnity payments for an injured employee, which are regarded as direct costs of the accident.  Nonetheless, there are certain costs that may be less apparent but are related to scheduled delays. Such delays may be attributed to additional administrative costs, increased employee absenteeism, poor customer relations……

Discussion Question 4

Answer Preview

There is a major difference between using lagging indicators and leading indicators when measuring a company’s safety and performance and safety program. Lagging indicators are used to measure an organization’s incidence, particularly in the form of past incident statistics. These are traditional safety metrics that are used to show the progress towards compliance, especially with safety rules. The indicators are bottom line numbers used to assess the overall effectiveness of safety in an organization and describe how people get involved in an accident or get injured. As such, the lagging indicators assist the company’s healthcare safety program by providing the statistics, such as lost workers’ compensation costs, the frequency of injuries, severity of accidents and injuries, or experience modification rates (Goetsch, 2015).

Leading indicators are measures that indicate the occurrence of a future event……

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Unit III Assessment

    Question 1

4 out of 4 points

The purpose of an accident investigation is to:

Selected Answer:

Correct

collect facts.

Correct Answer:

Correct

collect facts.

    Question 2

4 out of 4 points

The sustained heart rate for a 25-year-old employee should never exceed:

Selected Answer:

Correct

155 beats per minute.

Correct Answer:

Correct

155 beats per minute.

    Question 3

4 out of 4 points

What are the three stages of human stress response?

Selected Answer:

Correct

Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

Correct Answer:

Correct

Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

    Question 4

4 out of 4 points

The best place to interview witnesses of an accident is:

Selected Answer:

Correct

at the accident scene in a place that is not intimidating.

Correct Answer:

Correct

at the accident scene in a place that is not intimidating.

    Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Which of the following is NOT a strategy for workplace stress reduction?

Selected Answer:

Correct

Increasing employees’ hourly pay rate

Correct Answer:

Correct

Increasing employees’ hourly pay rate

    Question 6

10 out of 10 points

Select the correct order of steps that safety and health professionals should follow when conducting an accident investigation (1. being the first step, and 5. being the last step).

Correct Answer

Selected Answer

Correct1.

Isolate the scene.

Correct1.

Isolate the scene.

Correct2.

Record all the evidence.

Correct2.

Record all the evidence.

Correct3.

Photograph or videotape the scene.

Correct3.

Photograph or videotape the scene.

Correct4.

Identify witnesses.

Correct4.

Identify witnesses.

Correct5.

Interview witnesses.

Correct5.

Interview witnesses.

    Question 7

20 out of 20 points

Match the term on the left with the definition on the right. Select the best answer for each matching pair.

o    

Question

Correct Match

Selected Match

Primary witnesses

CorrectH.

People who actually saw the event

CorrectH.

People who actually saw the event

Secondary witnesses

CorrectA.

People who did not actually see the accident happen, but were nearby

CorrectA.

People who did not actually see the accident happen, but were nearby

Tertiary witnesses

CorrectI.

People who were not present at the time of the accident or afterward, but may have relevant evidence to present

CorrectI.

People who were not present at the time of the accident or afterward, but may have relevant evidence to present

Accident report

CorrectG.

Completed when the accident in question represents only a minor incident

CorrectG.

Completed when the accident in question represents only a minor incident

Accident analysis report

CorrectE.

Completed when the accident in question is serious

CorrectE.

Completed when the accident in question is serious

Heat strain

CorrectD.

The overall physiological response resulting from heat stress

CorrectD.

The overall physiological response resulting from heat stress

Heat stress

CorrectB.

The net heat load to which a worker may be exposed, from the combined contributions of metabolic effect of work, environmental factors, and clothing

CorrectB.

The net heat load to which a worker may be exposed, from the combined contributions of metabolic effect of work, environmental factors, and clothing

Heat exhaustion

CorrectJ.

The physical state in which the worker’s skin becomes clammy and moist and his or her body temperature is still normal or slightly higher than normal

CorrectJ.

The physical state in which the worker’s skin becomes clammy and moist and his or her body temperature is still normal or slightly higher than normal

Shock

CorrectF.

The depression of the nervous system that can be caused by both physical and psychological trauma

CorrectF.

The depression of the nervous system that can be caused by both physical and psychological trauma

Injury Illness and Injury Report (Form 301)

CorrectC.

Required to be completed any time a recordable work-related injury or illness occurs

CorrectC.

Required to be completed any time a recordable work-related injury or illness occurs

    Question 8

The text lists ten accident investigation mistakes to avoid. Pick five of the ten accident investigation mistakes that your course text lists as “mistakes to avoid,” and discuss the reasons why those particular mistakes are critical to avoid during an investigation, providing examples. Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Critical Mistakes to Avoid

There are several mistakes that should be avoided during an investigation of an accident. Some of the mistakes that are critical to avoid during investigation are as follows:

Failure to Investigate Misses: Near miss can be termed as an accident that is prevented by luck. It is important to avoid this mistake because near miss usually gives last chance to rectify the situation (Goetsch, 2015). For example, in a manufacturing unit, the worker falls off from a heavy duty machine but is prevented because of his luck this case will never repeat in the future.

Taking Ineffective Correct Action: This mistake is due to cursory accident investigation. It normally occurs because the corrective action taken does not mitigate…….

    Question 9

List and describe the factors that determine the severity of a chemical burn. Explain the hazards of chemical burns other than tissue damage. Your response should be at least 200 words in length

Preview of the Answer

Factors That Determine the Severity of a Chemical Burn

The chemical’s corrosive capability: Usually, a highly corrosive chemical will cause severe burns compared to same chemical that is of a lesser concentration (Goetsch, 2015).

The chemical’s concentration: A chemicals that is highly concentrated will often cause severe burns as compared to the same chemical that is of a lesser concentration (Goetsch, 2015).

The duration of contact with the chemical: When a chemical stays on the body for a longer period, it is likely to cause an extensive burn as opposed to when it is cleaned immediately upon contact with the body (Goetsch, 2015).

The chemical’s temperature or temperature of the solution in which……..

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Unit IV Assessment

·         Question 1

10 out of 10 points

The ANSI standard for face and eye protective devices is:

Selected Answer:

Correct

ANSI Z87.1.

Correct Answer:

Correct

ANSI Z87.1.

·         Question 2

10 out of 10 points

Which safety device is used to detect the flow of current to the ground and open the circuit?

Selected Answer:

Correct

Ground fault circuit interrupter

Correct Answer:

Correct

Ground fault circuit interrupter

·         Question 3

10 out of 10 points

Which is NOT a strategy for ensuring employees wear and are comfortable with personal protective equipment (PPE)?

Selected Answer:

Correct

Select PPE based only upon the worst hazard that might be encountered.

Correct Answer:

Correct

Select PPE based only upon the worst hazard that might be encountered.

·         Question 4

10 out of 10 points

Proper lifting techniques that should be taught as part of an organization’s safety program include all of the following EXCEPT:

Selected Answer:

Correct

twist while lifting the load to gain momentum.

Correct Answer:

Correct

twist while lifting the load to gain momentum.

·         Question 5

10 out of 10 points

Which of the following is NOT one of the primary causes of falls?

Selected Answer:

Correct

Fall protection components

Correct Answer:

Correct

Fall protection components

·         Question 6

Discuss OSHA’s recommendations for effective fall protection relative to a workplace fall incident that you are familiar with (if you do not know of a fall from heights that happened in your present or past workplace, use a fall from heights from a recent news event). What were the root causes of the fall from heights (i.e., the hazards that created the danger) for your incident? How can these recognized hazards be fixed? Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Incident Summary

In the year 2014, an accident occurred at the Marathon Galveston Bay Refinery. The accident involved a roofing contractor who fell through the roof a warehouse. The contractor, who was doing a replacement of metal roofing panels, fell upon stepping into an opening where a roofing panel had been removed.  The distance of the fall was approximately 40 feet to the warehouse below. Following his fall, the contractor sustained a work-related injury with the seventy-two works days recorded on their OSHA 300 Log.

OSHA Recommendations

The OSHA 1910.23 recommendations for Guarding Floor and Opening Holes has particular requirements that are meant to prevent falls of this nature in the workplace (Lehtola, Brown & Becker, 2000). It provides that every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level to be guarded by a standard railing on all sides except where is an entrance to a ramp, stairway……..

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Unit V Assessment

Question 1

Summarize the provisions of OSHA’s Control of Hazardous Energy standard (1910.147). List three or four types of hazardous energy that should be considered when authoring a control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) program with examples of each type.Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

The OSHA’s Control of Hazardous Energy Standard (1910.147) focuses on controlling hazardous energy. According to Goetsch (2015), the standard addresses the practices and procedures that are necessary to disable machinery or equipment, and as a result regulating the release of hazardous energy while employees perform servicing and maintenance activities. The standard establishes the employer’s responsibility in as much as workers protection from hazardous protection is concerned (Goetsch, 2015). Employers are required to train their workers and ensure that they follow the applicable provisions of the standard as follows:

o    All employees who work in an area where energy control procedures are used should be instructed about the purpose and use of the energy control procedures, especially prohibition against attempting to restart or reenergize machines or other equipment that are locked or tagged out (Mutawe, Tsunehara & Glaspey, 2002).

o    All employees who are authorized to lockout machines or equipment and perform the service and maintenance operations should undergo training about the applicable hazardous energy sources in the workplace, the type and magnitude of energy found in the workplace, and the means and methods of isolating and/or controlling the energy (Mutawe, Tsunehara & Glaspey, 2002).

o    Use only lockout/tagout devices authorized for the particular equipment or machinery and ensure that they are durable, standardized, and substantial.

Retraining of all employees to maintain proficiency or introduce new or changed control methods……….  

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Question 2

Discuss some common pressure hazards that are present in the workplace. What type of things should a safety professional implement in order to reduce the potential for injury from pressure hazards? Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Common Pressure Hazards Present in the Workplace

Pressure is simply the force exerted against an opposing fluid or thrust distributed over a surface. It is expressed in force or weight per unit of area expressed in force or weight per unit of area. Pressure is important as little pressure can result in critical injury (Goetsch, 2015). Pressure Hazards can result from various sources. The most common pressure hazards include those resulting from boilers, high temperature water, hazards of unfired pressure vessels and high-pressure systems among others (Goetsch, 2015).

Boilers and Pressure Hazards

There are quite a number of hazards that are associated with boilers and other pressurized vessels. These include: Design, construction or installation errors; poor or insufficient training of operators: Human error, mechanical breakdown or failure; Mechanical breakdown or failure; failure or blockage of control or safety devices; Insufficient or improper inspections or improper inspections; and improper application of equipment (Goetsch, 2015).

High Temperature Water Pressure Hazards

High temperature water refers to water that has been heated to extreme temperature, however, does not contain enough heat to generate steam (Goetsch, 2015). Human contact with such water can cause serious burns and even death. The two common sources of high-temperature are operator error and improper design. Mechanical forces, for example, water hammer, thermal expansion, thermal shock, or faulty materials cause system failures, more ……..

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Unit V Assessment

Question 1

Summarize the provisions of OSHA’s Control of Hazardous Energy standard (1910.147). List three or four types of hazardous energy that should be considered when authoring a control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) program with examples of each type.Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

The OSHA’s Control of Hazardous Energy Standard (1910.147) focuses on controlling hazardous energy. According to Goetsch (2015), the standard addresses the practices and procedures that are necessary to disable machinery or equipment, and as a result regulating the release of hazardous energy while employees perform servicing and maintenance activities. The standard establishes the employer’s responsibility in as much as workers protection from hazardous protection is concerned (Goetsch, 2015). Employers are required to train their workers and ensure that they follow the applicable provisions of the standard as follows:

o    All employees who work in an area where energy control procedures are used should be instructed about the purpose and use of the energy control procedures, especially prohibition against attempting to restart or reenergize machines or other equipment that are locked or tagged out (Mutawe, Tsunehara & Glaspey, 2002).

o    All employees who are authorized to lockout machines or equipment and perform the service and maintenance operations should undergo training about the applicable hazardous energy sources in the workplace, the type and magnitude of energy found in the workplace, and the means and methods of isolating and/or controlling the energy (Mutawe, Tsunehara & Glaspey, 2002).

o    Use only lockout/tagout devices authorized for the particular equipment or machinery and ensure that they are durable, standardized, and substantial.

Retraining of all employees to maintain proficiency or introduce new or changed control methods……….

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Question 2

Discuss some common pressure hazards that are present in the workplace. What type of things should a safety professional implement in order to reduce the potential for injury from pressure hazards? Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Common Pressure Hazards Present in the Workplace

Pressure is simply the force exerted against an opposing fluid or thrust distributed over a surface. It is expressed in force or weight per unit of area expressed in force or weight per unit of area. Pressure is important as little pressure can result in critical injury (Goetsch, 2015). Pressure Hazards can result from various sources. The most common pressure hazards include those resulting from boilers, high temperature water, hazards of unfired pressure vessels and high-pressure systems among others (Goetsch, 2015).

Boilers and Pressure Hazards

There are quite a number of hazards that are associated with boilers and other pressurized vessels. These include: Design, construction or installation errors; poor or insufficient training of operators: Human error, mechanical breakdown or failure; Mechanical breakdown or failure; failure or blockage of control or safety devices; Insufficient or improper inspections or improper inspections; and improper application of equipment (Goetsch, 2015).

High Temperature Water Pressure Hazards

High temperature water refers to water that has been heated to extreme temperature, however, does not contain enough heat to generate steam (Goetsch, 2015). Human contact with such water can cause serious burns and even death. The two common sources of high-temperature are operator error and improper design. Mechanical forces, for example, water hammer, thermal expansion, thermal shock, or faulty materials cause system failures, more ……..

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Unit VI Assessment

Question 1

Briefly explain the following concepts related to exposure thresholds: time-weighted average, short-term exposure limit, exposure ceiling, and biological exposure indices. Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Time-Weighted Average (TWA):  The TWA for the exposure to a chemical can be used when both the chemical concentration and time for exposure varies over time. It is thus used as the average exposure to a contaminant to which workers may be exposed without adverse effect over a period such as in an 8-hour day or 40-hour week (Goetsch, 2015). They are usually expressed in units of ppm (volume/volume) or mg/m3.

Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):  The STEL is a limit value above which exposure to a chemical substance should not occur and usually relates to a 15 minute reference period (Goetsch, 2015). The aim of a STEL is to prevent adverse health effects and other unwanted effects due to peak exposure that may not be controlled by the application of an 8 hour TWA limit……

Question 2

Describe the most common types of airborne contaminants. List and describe the types of effects of airborne toxics on the body. Your response must be at least 200 words in length

Preview of the Answer

Common Types of Airborne Contaminants

The most common types of airborne contaminants include the following:

Dusts:  Dusts are various types of solid particles that are produced when a given type of organic or inorganic material is scraped, sawed, ground, drilled, handled, heated, crushed, or otherwise deformed (Goetsch, 2015). The degree of hazard represented by dust depends on the toxicity of the parent material and the size and level of concentration of the particles (Goetsch, 2015).

Fumes:  The most common causes of fumes on construction sites are processes such as welding and torch cutting both of which involve the interaction of intense heat with a parent ma……..

Question 3

What is the difference between noise and sound? Describe the three main types of noise-control strategies, and give at least two examples of each type. Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

The difference between sound and noise depends upon the listener and the circumstances. Nevertheless, sound refers to the sensation caused in the ear by the vibration in surrounding or in any other medium. On the other hand, noise is an unpleasant sound especially a loud one compromising of shouts too. Secondly, sound is always in the desired limit while noise is non-desirable in nature. Lastly, sound is always relevant while noise is irrelevant (Goetsch, 2015).

Main types of noise-control strategies

The main noise-control strategies applied by safety professionals include noise engineering controls, administrative controls and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (Goetsch, 2015).

Administrative Controls

These focus on management……..

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Unit VIII Final Exam

    Question 1

4 out of 4 points

Ergonomic traps, overload, and/or a decision to err lead to human error according to the:

Selected Answer:

Accident/incident theory

    Question 2

4 out of 4 points

All of the following employees are covered under the workers’ compensation laws EXCEPT:

Selected Answer:

Unpaid Volunteers

    Question 3

4 out of 4 points

How many individuals are direct victims of some form of violent crime in the workplace every year?

Selected Answer:

1 million

    Question 4

4 out of 4 points

What three elements are required to start and sustain fire?

Selected Answer:

Fuel, heat, and oxygen

    Question 5

4 out of 4 points

The severity of a burn depends on several factors. The most important of these is:

Selected Answer:

Depth to which the burn penetrates

    Question 6

16 out of 20 points

Match the acronym on the left with the program or programs that it relates to on the right. Select the best answer for each matching pair.

o    

Question

Selected Match

ACGIH

I.

Publishes the threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices.

EPCRA

E.

Law designed to make information about hazardous chemicals available to the community where they are being used.

HAZWOPER

B.

Special regulation dealing with chemical spills.

NIOSH

G.

Performs research on toxicity levels and human tolerance levels of hazardous substances and makes recommendations to the Department of Labor about worker exposure limits.

EAP

A.

A collection of small plans for every anticipated emergency.

PELs

F.

Guidelines to help safety and health professionals control certain chemical and physical hazards in the workplace.

TLVs

J.

The amounts of given substances to which employees can be exposed over a specified period of time.

CPTED

D.

Strategy that incorporates natural surveillance, control of access, establishment of territoriality, activity support, and administrative control to reduce risk of violence in the workplace.

CTDs

C.

Injuries caused by forceful or awkward movements repeated frequently over time.

MSDs

H.

Injuries or pain in the body’s joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck, and back.

Question 7

Describe the requirements of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). What was this law designed to do and to which workplaces does it apply? Describe how the requirements of SARA might tie into preparing an employee and workplace against terrorism. Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Requirements of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)

SARA has four major components as follows:  Emergency planning (Sections 302 & 303): Emergency release notification (Section 304); Hazardous chemical inventory (Sections 311 & 312) and; Toxic chemical release inventory (Section 313).

Emergency planning (Sections 302 & 303)

SARA requires that safety authorities identify routes for the transportation of EHS; Identify facilities contributing to the risk due to their proximity to facilities such as natural gas facilities; Identify facilities subjected to additional risk due to their proximity to facilities such as hospitals; Describe emergency response procedures, on and off site; Designate a community coordinator and facility coordinator(s) to implement the plan; outline emergency notification procedures and; Provide methods and schedules for exercising the emergency plan (Pritchard, 1988).

Emergency release notification (Section 304)

SARA requires that facilities must immediately notify the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) and the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) if there is a release into the environment of a hazardous substance that is equal to or exceeds the minimum reportable quantity set in the regulations (Pritchard, 1988).

Hazardous Chemical Inventory (Sections 311 & 312)

SARA requires facilities that have Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) for chemicals held above certain quantities to submit either copies of their SDSs or a list of these hazardous chemicals to the SERC, LEPC, and local fire department within three months after they exceed the threshold. If the facility……..

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Question 8

Discuss the crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) risk reduction philosophy. What are the major elements of CPTED, and how do they help prevent and prepare for workplace violence events? Your response must be at least 500 words in length.

Preview of the Answer

Discussion of the crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) risk reduction philosophy

Crime Prevention is simply defines as the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a crime risk and the initiation of some action to remove or reduce it (Goetsch, 2015). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, CPTED, on the other hand, is based on the idea that the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the incidence and fear of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life (Goetsch, 2015).  In other words, if a site is laid out well, the likelihood of it being targeted for a crime may be reduced.

CPTED makes possible designs that offer protection without resorting to the prison camp approach to security. Use of fortress-type construction is minimized, and where necessary, integrated into the overall design, reducing negative visual impact (Goetsch, 2015). This approach is also cost-effective, since hardware applications are made during construction rather than added at a later date.

Major elements of CPTED, and how they help prevent and prepare for workplace violence events

CPTED is based on three major elements as follows:

Natural Surveillance

This is achieved through design and maintenance that allow people engaged in their normal activity to easily observe the space around them, as well as eliminating hiding places for people engaged in criminal activity (Goetsch, 2015). is generally achieved by the use of appropriate lighting, low or see-through fencing or landscaping, the removal of areas………

BOS 3001 Fundamentals of Occupational Safety and Health

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